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과거 완료 능동(The pluperfect active) 및 수동형 추가(more passives)
17a 노트해 두십시오.
discipul-us disciple 2m; monument-um tomb 2n; respons-um reply 2n.
crux cruc- cross 3f; frater fratr- brother 3m; lex leg- law 3f; pontifex pontific- leader 3m; potestas potestat- power 3f; sermo sermon- conversation, words 3m; soror soror- sister 3f.
caput capit- head 3n.
accipio 5v accepi take, receive; clamo I shout, cry; crucifigo 3v crucifix-i crucify; debet he ought; dimitto 3v dimis-i release; fleo 2v cry; impono 3v imposu-i place X (대격) on Y (여격); ploro 1v weep; pono 3v posu-i place; quaero 3v seek; scribo 3v scrips-i script-um write; sedeo 2v sit; tango 3v touch; trado 3v tradid-i hand over, give up.
고정형 tunc then; ergo therefore; nisi unless, except; propterea therefore; quia that, because; si if; ubi where, when
과거 완료(The pluperfect): ‘had’
17b 완료 시제를 기억하십시오.
amav-i ‘I loved/have loved’ (완료 능동).
amatus sum ‘I was/have been loved’ (완료 수동).
이제 과거 완료 시제입니다.
과거 완료 능동(Pluperfect active)
1s am–a–v-eram ‘I had loved’
2s am–a–v-eras ‘you had loved’
3s am–a–v-erat ‘he/she/it had loved’
1pl am–a–v-eramus ‘we had loved’
2pl am–a–v-eratis ‘you had loved’
3pl am–a–v-erant ‘they had loved’
즉, 세 번째 주요부(=완료형) + -eram -eras -erat -eramus -eratis -erant = 과거 완료 능동, ‘I had -ed’.
과거 완료 수동(Pluperfect passive)
1s amat-us a um eram ‘I had been loved’
2s amat-us a um eras ‘you had been loved’
3s amat-us a um erat ‘he/she/it had been loved’
1pl amati ae a eramus ‘we had been loved’
2pl amati ae a eratis ‘you had been loved’
3pl amati ae a erant ‘they had been loved’
즉, 네 번째 주요부(-us a um) + eram, eras, erat (etc.) = 과거 완료 수동, ‘I had been -ed’.
17c 기억을 되살려보면 sum의 미완료형인 eram, eras, erat, (등)의 본 뜻은 ‘I was’, ‘you were’, ‘he/she/it was’ (등)입니다. 위에서 설명한 방식으로 다른 동사와 혼합될 때만 과거 완료 ‘had’의 의미를 갖습니다.
사용례. Caesar erat dux: Caesar was leader; Caesar Cleopatram amaverat: Caesar had loved Cleopatra; Cleopatra a Caesare amata erat: Cleopatra had been loved by Caesar.
다음 문장에서 a(b) + abl. (‘by’ a person)가 쓰이고 있는 점에 유의하십시오. 지난 장에 소개된 어휘들이 여기서 다시 사용되고 있습니다.
다음을 영어로 번역하시오. Pilatus titulum (title, 대격) scripserat; titulus a Pilato scriptus erat; ex corde et mente, Pilatus Iesum dimittere voluerat; ubi Pilatus sermonem Iudaeorum audivit, timebat; pontifices Iudaeorum clamaverant “crucifige eum!”; Pilatus autem Iesum non dimiserat, sed militibus eum tradiderat; corona capiti eius imposita erat a militibus; Iudaei clamaverant se nullum (‘no’) regem habere nisi Caesarem.
Pilate had written the title; the title had been written by Pilate; from heart and mind, Pilate had wanted to release Jesus; when Pilate heard the words of the Jews, he was afraid; the leaders of the Jews had shouted “Crucify him!”; Pilate however had not released Jesus, but (had) handed him over to the soldiers; a crown had been placed on his head by the soldiers; the Jews had cried that they had no king but Caesar.
17d 현재 시제 및 미완료 시제에서 이제까지 능동형만 학습하였습니다. 예, ‘I love’ amo, ‘I was loving’ amabam. 그런데 수동형(‘I am being loved’ ‘I was being loved’)은 없을까요? 당연히 있습니다.
17e 새로운 활용형을 소개합니다. 라틴어의 좋은 점은 규칙적인 언어라는 것입니다. 즉, 어간 + 핵심 모음을 새로운 활용 어미(–r, –ris, –tur, –mur, –mini –ntur)와 연결합니다. 이것이 전부입니다.
17f 제1형 활용 동사 amo를 예로 보여드립니다.
(i) 현재 시제. amo-r ‘I am being loved’, ama-ris ‘you (s) are being loved’, ama-tur ‘he/she/it is being loved’, ama-mur ‘we are being loved’, ama-mini ‘you (pl) are being loved’, ama-ntur ‘they are being loved’.
(ii) 미완료. Amaba-r ‘I was being loved’, amaba-ris ‘you (s) were being loved’, amaba-tur ‘he/she/it was being loved’, amaba-mur ‘we were being loved’, amaba-mini ‘you (pl) were being loved’, amaba-ntur ‘they were being loved’.
17g 각 동사 활용(1-5형) 모두 어간 + 핵심 모음 + r, ris, tur, mur, mini, ntur 형태가 됩니다. (각 동사 활용형별(가로)/인칭별(세로)로 표를 만들어 봅시다.)
제3, 4, 5형 동사 활용에 유의하여 다음을 번역하십시오.
- 다음을 영어로 번역하시오. portantur, dimittitur, tangabamini, tradimur, quaerebatur, scribitur, ponimini, moneris, accipior, crucifigebaris, incenduntur, regebar, ducitur, capimini, audienbamur.
- 다음을 라틴어로 번역하시오. He is being loved, they were being captured, he is being warned, it was being written, he is being placed, you (pl) are being crucified, they were being sought, I am being led, he was being carried.
- 다음을 영어로 번역하시오. multi milites corpus regis portant; corpus regis a multis militibus portatur; omnes homines palatium incendebant; palatium ab omnibus hominibus incendebatur; Iesus spiritum (spirit, 대격) tradidit; spiritus a Iesu traditus est; ubi positum erat corpus Iesu (of Jesus 통상 제4형 곡용 명사의 속격은 주격과 동일하나 Iesus 주격 Iesu 속격임)?; Deus mihi potestatem magnam dat; mihi a Deo potestas magna datur; responsum dabatur discipulis ab omnibus angelis; frater et soror eius ad monumentum missi erant; dum corpus regis miseri portabatur, multi sermones erant; a discipulis miseris corpus in monumento positum erat.
- They are being carried, he is being released, you were being touched, we are being handed over, he was being sought, it is being written, you are being placed, you are being warned, I am being received, you were being crucified, they are being burned, I was being ruled, he is being led, you are being captured, we were being ruled, he is being led, you are being captured, we were being heard.
- amatur, capienbatur, monetur, scribebatur, ponitur, crucifigimini, quarebantur, ducor, portabtur.
- Many soldiers carry the body of the king; the body of the king is carried by many soldiers; all the men were burning the palace; the palace was being burnt by all the men; Jesus gave up his spirit; the spirit was given up by Jesus; where had the body of Jesus been placed?; God gives (to) me great power; to me great power is given by God; a reply was being given to the disciples by all the angels; the brother and his sister had been sent to the sepulchre; while the unhappy king’s body was being carried, there were many conversations; the body had been placed in the tomb by the unhappy disciples.